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Appendixes: Appendix A, Appendix B

Over the past 150 years there has been an enormous increase in the number of DePauw faculty members and radical changes in their professional training. Before 1880 the Liberal Arts faculty never numbered more than 10. In the last two decades of the 19th century, despite a 50 percent growth in student enrollment, faculty size averaged about 17. The ranks of the teaching faculty grew rapidly during the next quarter of a century, tripling to 50 by 1921 and to 88 five years later. Financial stringency during the Great Depression reduced the number of faculty by 15, but DePauw entered another period of expansion of instructional staff in the late 1930s. Soon after World War II the number of faculty members reached 100 and by the late 1950s grew to 150. In the last decades faculty ranks have continued to expand to approximately 170, but mostly by means of increased employment of part-time instructors.

DePauw has long celebrated its small classes and close student-faculty relations. This feature was more characteristic of the Indiana Asbury and early DePauw period than of the present century. In 1881 there were just 11 liberal arts students for each member of the faculty. Since faculty growth did not keep pace with rapid increases in the student population, there were 26 students per faculty member by 1911. The student-faculty ratio gradually fell over the ensuing decades, reaching 15 to 1 in the early 1950s and has remained more or less stable down to the present.

The backgrounds of DePauw faculty members have also changed dramatically. Indiana Asbury University sought to instill Christian piety in its students while transmitting a common classical culture through memorization and recitation from textbooks. Christian character, not professional training, was demanded of professors, who in the 19th century were chiefly Methodist ministers or devout laymen engaged in teaching a wide variety of subjects. Sometimes they were assisted by recent graduates of the institution. A striking example of such virtuosity was Professor James Riley Weaver, who came to the university in 1885 with an A.B. and S.T.B. to teach German and French. During his 30-year tenure he also offered courses in history, political science, economics, and sociology. But the next year, representing the wave of the future, Oliver P. Jenkins arrived with a Ph.D. to teach biology. President John P.D. John's "new education" required a faculty with professional training in a specific academic subject. Almost all new instructors appointed after 1890 had at least a master's degree in their specialty and many had earned doctorates. At the same time the teaching faculty was divided into definite ranks; associate professors appeared in the 1890s and assistant professors in the 1910s.

The "Ph.D. revolution" spread from the top down. The Ph.D. degree gradually became a prerequisite for appointment to a full professorship in the College of Liberal Arts (except in fields such as studio art, where the terminal degree was at the master's level). In 1881 less than one-fifth of all full professors possessed Ph.D.s; this proportion grew to one-third by 1891 and one-half by 1911. It continued to climb at an even faster rate in later decades, reaching over 80 percent by the 1940s and 96 percent in 1986. Eventually the same Ph.D. standard was applied to the entire liberal arts faculty. In 1986, 82 percent of all full-time members of the teaching faculty in the College of Liberal Arts held doctorates.

The arrival of coeducation in 1867 did not bring equitable female representation on the faculty. While frequently engaged as instructors in the Schools of Music and Art, women were notably absent in the College of Liberal Arts. In 1881, when women comprised one-fourth of the liberal arts enrollment, there was only one woman, Alice Downey, an instructor in the preparatory department, among the 17 faculty members listed in the college catalogue.
Only three women appointed to the faculty before 1900 ever attained full professor rank: Alma Holman (1882-1885) in modern languages; Belle A. Mansfield (1886-1911) in history and aesthetics; and Minna Kern (1895-1932) in German and French. By the 1910s there was a female student majority in the College of Liberal Arts but less than one-fifth of the faculty were women.

The proportion of female instructional staff gradually increased to about one-fourth of the liberal arts faculty in the 1920s and nearly 30 percent after World War II, when the absence of men provided temporary opportunities for women to enter the college teaching field. Representation of women on the faculty, however, declined to about 16 percent by the late 1960s and has only reached 28 percent in 1986 after a gradual increase in the last decade. Women members of the faculty have also been clustered disproportionately in the junior ranks of instructor and assistant professor. Although one-fourth to one-half of all instructors have been women, they have rarely comprised as much as 15 percent of full professors. In the 1970s and 1980s, in fact, less than four percent of all full professors in the College of Liberal Arts have been women, their lowest representation since the 1920s.

These patterns reflect national trends. Although education has long been a field open to women, they were often discouraged from obtaining the graduate training that was increasingly necessary for a career in college teaching. Female instructors were more likely than men to lack the advanced degrees required for promotion to higher academic ranks. Unlike their male colleagues women faculty members often had to choose between marriage and a family and the pursuit of a teaching career. These social constraints discouraged many women from entering the academy in the immediate post-World War II period.

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Appendixes: Appendix A, Appendix B

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